Quantification of fatty vacuoles in the liver, with differentiation from lumina of liver blood vessels and bile ducts, is an example where the traditional semiquantitative pathology assessment can be enhanced with artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Using glass slides of mice liver as a model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a deep learning AI algorithm was developed. This algorithm uses a segmentation framework for vacuole quantification and can be deployed to analyze live histopathology fields during the microscope-based pathology assessment. We compared the manual semiquantitative microscope-based assessment with the quantitative output of the deep learning algorithm. The deep learning algorithm was able to recognize and quantify the percent of fatty vacuoles, exhibiting a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.87, P < .001) between the semiquantitative and quantitative assessment methods. The use of deep learning algorithms for difficult quantifications within the microscope-based pathology assessment can help improve outputs of toxicologic pathology workflows.